Okko Outinen, Riikka Puntila-Dodd, Ieva Barda, Radosław Brzana, Joanna Hegele-Drywa, Monta Kalnina, Mara Kostanda, Atte Lindqvist, Monika Normant-Saremba, Michalina Ścibik, Solvita Strake, Jutta Vuolamo & Maiju Lehtiniemi 2021

The study included the sampling of 12 marinas across six areas of the Baltic Sea with settlement plates and scraping of submerged structures to assess the role of marinas in the spread of non-indigenous species (NIS) via biofouling. 15 NIS were detected in the marinas and secondary spread of previously introduced NIS was detected in five out of six sea areas. Salinity and sea area significantly affected the composition of the fouling assemblages. Settlement plates appeared as the more efficient sampling method over scraping, while the seasonal analyses revealed that the monitoring effort should span over the summer and early autumn in the south-eastern, central, and northern Baltic Sea. The present findings indicate that marinas contribute to the spread of non-indigenous fouling organisms, and there is an increasing demand for the monitoring of marinas and stricter regulations regarding the biofouling management of leisure boats in the Baltic Sea.

Biofouling, DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2021.1996564. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08927014.2021.1996564