Molecular methods help to identify and monitor harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in marine realm
Molecular techniques are advancing rapidly and are increasingly promoted in aquatic systems observations. These methods are particularly useful for early detection of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) which may be transported in ballast water or on ship hulls including potential HAOP such as newly arriving non-indigenous species (NIS). The identification of NIS, surveillance of high-priority pest species, determination of the source and pathways of invasion, as well as the genetic structure of the founding populations can be solved with new tools. Molecular monitoring is needed in order to address all biotic components as NIS may belong to any trophic level and be found in various man-made as well as natural habitats.